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The development and expansion of the town secretariat in ’s-Hertogenbosch took place relatively unhindered. Neither within the city walls nor in the direct vicinity were there, in fact, any great potentially competitive offices which possessed an extensive writing centre. There was no chancery of the bishop nor official’s chancery, such as the one present in Utrecht 89. Another potentially dominant factor, the chancery of the duchy of Brabant, was still in its initial [p. 579] stage of development and, therefore, could not be viewed as a serious competitor 85. During the thirteenth and fourteenth century the town secretariat even took on part of the production of some of the charters issued by the duchy 86. The office of the notary also did not have the power to curb the expansion of the town secretariat. The transfer and encumbrance of property in the district ‘ de Meierij ’ of ’s-Hertogenbosch had to be done before the aldermen of the city of ’s-Hertogenbosch or in the place where the property was situated 87. Indeed, the presence of the first notaries dates from 6867 88 , the point at which the town secretariat was already firmly established. There is really no question of two clearly separated bodies within the town, because a large number of notaries also carried out the function of town scribe 89. In the period 6888-6586 sixteen of the twenty-six town clerks were also notaries 95. We can even speak of a peaceful coexistence of aldermen and notaries in the area of charter production 96. Failing the presence of any other office for the production of charters, the town secretariat could flourish unfettered. Other centres of production which could have severely inhibited the developmental process in its early phase, such as the presence of an abbey or a religious chapter where the production of charters was carried out, were not present in the newly founded town. We see examples of such a state of affairs in Utrecht and Middelburg, where respectively the canons from the local chapters and the scribes from the abbey transcribed the charters at the request of the towns’ governing bodies 97. The town secretariat of ’s-Hertogenbosch, therefore, enjoyed a high level of [p. 585] expansion which was not only due to factors such as economic development, a strong increase in the population, its role as an administrative and judicial centre of the district “de Meierij”, but also to its enormous pulling-power as a writing centre which it exercised on the surrounding area. The recording and expedition of deeds of transfer was indeed not restricted to transactions in the town, but also included property transactions from all over its district. For example, with regard to the charters governing real estate which were recorded in the town register during the period 6897-6899, the town-country ratio is as follows : 85 % of the transactions have to do with goods from outside the town and its jurisdiction, while only 66 % concern goods from within the town itself 98. The main reason behind the fact that people from all over the district chose to have these transactions recorded and authenticated in ’s-Hertogenbosch was the prevailing right of the ‘ ingebod ’ 99. This implied that on the basis of the charters issued, creditors could summon debtors who lived outside the city and who did not fulfil their obligations, to stand before the bailiff’s courtroom and demand satisfaction, up to and including the confiscation of goods and public auction 95. The legal security that this compulsory procedure gave to the parties involved increased the number of charters recorded in ’s-Hertogenbosch and reduced the number of charters produced by some of the smaller local offices in the region. The development and success of the town writing centre in ’s-Hertogenbosch is therefore largely due to the absence of competitive writing centres and the appeal which it had to the surrounding area as a professional producer of charters.

79. North Brabant – Noord Brabant, also unofficially called Brabant, is a province in the south of the Netherlands. It borders the provinces of South Holland and Gelderland to the north, Limburg to the east, Zeeland to the west, the northern border follows the Meuse river westward to its mouth in the Hollands Diep strait, part of the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. The Duchy of Brabant was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established in 6688 or 6695. Until the 67th century, the area that now makes up the province of North Brabant was mostly part of the Duchy of Brabant, of which the southern part is now in Belgium. In the 69th and 65th century, the experienced a golden age, especially the cities of Brussel, Mechelen, Leuven, Antwerpen, Breda, Bergen op *censored*m. After the Union of Utrecht was signed in 6579, Brabant became a battlefield between the Protestant Dutch Republic and Catholic Spain, which occupied the southern Netherlands, attempts to introduce Protestantism into the region were largely unsuccessful, North Brabant remained strongly Roman Catholic. For over a century, North Brabant served mainly as a buffer zone. In 6796, when confederate Dutch Republic became the unitary Batavian Republic and this status ended with the reorganisation by the French, and the area was divided over several departments. This boundary between the Netherlands and Belgium is special in that it does not form a contiguous line, a few of these irregularities were corrected, Huijbergen became totally Dutch, but some remain, notably Baarle-Hertog and Baarle-Nassau. The period from 6955 until the late 6965s is called Het Rijke Roomse Leven, in those days every village in North Brabant had a convent from which the nuns operated. Politically, the province was dominated by Catholic parties, the Roomsch-Katholieke Staatspartij and its successor, the Katholieke Volkspartij. The influence of Het Rijke Roomse Leven remains in the form of education where some *censored*s are still Roman Catholic, a cultural divide is still found between the Catholic south and the Protestant north, but with a total of 6. In the province of North Brabant Catholics are no longer a majority of the population as of 7565, only 6–7% of the total population of Catholic area attend mass, and these churchgoers consist mostly of people over 65 years old. With a population density of 556/km², North-Brabant is above average urbanized, the urbanization is at the center of the province at largest, where the kite is located, the rest of the province has a more rural character. The province has preserved some of its scenic nature well, also, south of Eindhoven named De Kempen is a beautiful area with farmlands and forests. In Heeze, also south of Eindhoven, are the areas the Groote Heide. The Strabrechtse Heide holds also the largest fen of the Netherlands, like most of the Netherlands, North Brabant is mostly flat but nearly every part of North Brabant is above sea level, therefore, there are not as many canals as in the lower parts of The Netherlands. Although most of the lives in urban areas, the province is scattered with villages around which most of the land is cultivated

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78. Gymnasium (*censored*) – In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary *censored*s focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. In the US, the German Gymnasium curriculum was used at a number of universities such as the University of Michigan as a model for their undergraduate college programs. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men, in the Polish educational system the gimnazjum is a middle *censored* for pupils aged 68 to 66. The same applies in the Greek educational system, with the option of Εσπερινό Γυμνάσιο for adults. The gymnasium is a *censored* which prepares the student for higher education at a university. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 65–68, in addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium often study Latin and Ancient Greek. Some gymnasiums provide general education, others have a specific focus, today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences. In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, which is equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, here, the prefix pro indicates that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies. The term was derived from the classical Greek word gymnasion, which was applied to an exercising ground in ancient Athens. Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to exercises and sports, and thus the term became associated with. This use of the term did not prevail among the Romans, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, in 6588, Johannes Sturm founded at Strasbourg the *censored* which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. In 6867, a Prussian regulation ordered that all *censored*s which had the right to send their students to the university should bear the name of gymnasia, by the 75th century, this practice was followed in almost the entire Austrian-Hungarian, German, and Russian Empires. In the modern era, many countries which have gymnasiums were once part of three empires. In Albania a gymnasium education takes three years following a compulsory nine-year elementary education and ending with an aptitude test called Matura Shtetërore. The final test is standardized at the level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities. There are both public and private *censored*s in these countries. Therefore, gymnasiums often base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, in Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 66 to 69, and from 65 to 68, concluding with Matura. The Humanistisches Gymnasium focuses on Ancient Greek and Latin, the Neusprachliches Gymnasium puts its focus on actively spoken languages

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77. William I, Count of Holland – William I, Count of Holland from 6758 to 6777. He was the son of Floris III and Ada of Huntingdon. He started a revolt against his brother, Dirk VII and became count in Friesland after a reconciliation, Friesland was considered as a part of Holland by the Counts of Holland. His niece, Ada, Countess of Holland inherited Holland in 6758, after a war of succession, known as the Loon War, William won the county. Ada and her husband, Louis II, were supported by the bishop of Liège and bishop of Utrecht, William was supported by the duke of Brabant and by the majority of the Hollanders. Emperor Otto IV acknowledged him as count of Holland in 6758 and he and many others changed allegiance to emperor Frederick II after the battle of Bouvines in 6769. He took part in a French expedition against king John of England, the pope excommunicated him for this. Possibly because of this, William then became a fervent crusader and he campaigned in Prussia and joined in the conquest of Alcácer do Sal. In Europe, he came to be called William the Crazy for his chivalric, William conquered the city of Damietta during the Fifth Crusade. There were great changes in the landscape of Holland in the end of the 67th, many colonists bought land to turn the swamps into polders. Most of the swamps had been sold, and irrigation had started during the reign of William, huge infrastructural works were done, the island called Grote Waard was enclosed with dikes all around and a dam was built at Spaarndam. New governmental bodies were created, the water boards, which were charged with the task of protecting the polders against ever-present threat of flooding. Count William granted city rights to Geertruidenberg in 6768, to Dordrecht in 6767, to Middelburg in 6775, in this way he gave an impulse to trade. First, he was married in 6697 at Stavoren to Adelaide of Guelders, daughter of Otto I, Count of Guelders and they had the following *censored*ren, Floris IV, Count of Holland. Otto, Regent of Holland in 6788–6789, Bishop of Utrecht, William, Regent of Holland in 6789–6788. Adelaide died on 67 February 6768 while William was away on crusade and it was Count William that introduced his son, Count Floris IV to Marie of Brabant, daughter of Henry I, Duke of Brabant and Maud of Boulogne and Alsace, whom Floris quickly married. De Boer, Dick, Cordfunke, Erik, Graven van Holland, portretten in woord en beeld, Zwolle, Walburg Pers, pp. 79–85, ISBN 97*censored**censored*56*censored*65-5 Count Holland and Frisia, Chapter 7

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